Tag: Influencing People
Science of Persuasion
How External Situations Rapidly Affect Behavior: The Stanford Prison Experiment
The Stanford Prison Experiment, a dramatic simulation study of the psychology of imprisonment and one of the best known psychology experiments ever undertaken.Dr. Zimbardo takes us through the Stanford Prison Experiment, in which healthy college students are transformed into unstable prisoners and brutal prison guards within days by the power of the situation in which they found themselves.
In 1971, psychologist Philip Zimbardo and his colleagues set out to create an experiment that looked at the impact of becoming a prisoner or prison guard. Zimbardo, a former classmate of Stanley Milgram (who is best-known for his famous obedience experiment, was interested in expanding upon Milgram’s research. He wanted to further investigate the the impact of situational variables on human behavior.
The question the researchers asked was how would the participants react when placed in a simulated prison environment. “Suppose you had only kids who were normally healthy, psychologically and physically, and they knew they would be going into a prison-like environment and that some of their civil rights would be sacrificed. Would those good people, put in that bad, evil place—would their goodness triumph?” Zimbardo explained in one interview.
The researchers set up a mock prison in the basement of Standford University’s psychology building, and then selected 24 undergraduate students to play the roles of both prisoners and guards. The participants were selected from a larger group of 70 volunteers because they had no criminal background, lacked psychological issues, and had no major medical conditions. The volunteers agreed to participate for a one- to two-week period in exchange for $15 a day.
The simulated prison included three six by nine foot prison cells. Each cell held three prisoners and included three cots. Other rooms across from the cells were utilized for the prison guards and warden. One very small space was designated as the solitary confinement room, and yet another small room served as the prison yard.
The 24 volunteers were then randomly assigned to either the prisoner group or the guard group. Prisoners were to remain in the mock prison 24-hours a day for the duration of the study. Guards, on the other hand, were assigned to work in three-man teams for eight-hour shifts. After each shift, guards were allowed to return to their homes until their next shift. Researchers were able to observe the behavior of the prisoners and guards using hidden cameras and microphones.
While the Stanford Prison Experiment was originally slated to last 14 days, it had to be stopped after just six due to what was happening to the student participants. The guards became abusive and the prisoners began to show signs of extreme stress and anxiety. While the prisoners and guards were allowed to interact in any way they wanted, the interactions were generally hostile or even dehumanizing. The guards began to behave in ways that were aggressive and abusive toward the prisoners, while the prisoners became passive and depressed. Five of the prisoners began to experience such severe negative emotions, including crying and acute anxiety, that they had to be released from the study early. Even the researchers themselves began to lose sight of the reality of the situation. Zimbardo, who acted as the prison warden, overlooked the abusive behavior of the prison guards until graduate student Christina Maslach voiced objections to the conditions in the simulated prison and the morality of continuing the experiment.
“Only a few people were able to resist the situational temptations to yield to power and dominance while maintaining some semblance of morality and decency; obviously I was not among that noble class,” Zimbardo later wrote in his book The Lucifer Effect.
According to Zimbardo and his colleagues, the Stanford Prison Experiment demonstrates the powerful role that the situation can play in human behavior. Because the guards were placed in a position of power, they began to behave in ways they would not normally act in their everyday lives or in other situations. The prisoners, placed in a situation where they had no real control, became passive and depressed.
The Pygmalion Effect and the Power of Positive Expectations
Interesting theory here. According to the Pygmalion Effect, positive expectations of people actually influence those people’s performance.
How To Succeed: 5 Steps For Getting Ahead
How Incredibly Successful People THINK
Think Fast, Talk Smart: Communication Techniques
Communication is critical to success in business and life. Anxious about being asked to give your thoughts during a meeting? Fearful about needing to provide critical feedback in the moment? You are not alone! Learn and practice techniques that will help you speak spontaneously with greater confidence and clarity, regardless of content and context.
Speaker: Matt Abrahams, ’91 Matt Abrahams is a lecturer at the Stanford Graduate School of Business, teaching strategic communication; he also teaches public speaking in Stanford’s Continuing Studies Program.
Five Simple Steps to Achieving Clarity as a Team
Accountability requires clarity in tasks.
1. Identify a platform for recording all action items (e.g. dry erase board, a Google doc, etc).
2. Create a column in that platform called “What,” where you list out every action item that needs to be executed.
3. Create a “Who” column where you show who is responsible for each action item.
4. Determine “When” each task must be completed by.
5. Create a recurring follow-up schedule.
Four Steps to Setting Goals to Keep Your Business Focused
1. Set a “thematic” goal (e.g. for a quarter, for each month, processes, systems, etc). Work it out with your team so everyone has buy-in.
2. Set 4-6 action items in order for the entire team to realize the thematic goal.
3. Set your ongoing objectives (e.g. revenue, team development, operational goals for a quarter, year, etc.)
4. Have a check-in mechanism, such as a weekly scoreboard so everyone knows how well the team is advancing towards the thematic goal.
Why You Should “Warm Up” Every Day Before Going into Your Store
Like athletes before a competition, you should “warm up” before you go into your store. For example, go over your goals, do some affirmations, … build up your good, positive energy so you can share it when you go in!
Driving Customer (Guest) Experience Transformation
A short but informative video. Please note in particular, the “4 Customer (Guest) Experience Core Competencies.” They are described here as:
1. Purposeful Leadership: happens when leaders create a clear vision and act accordingly
2. Compelling Brand Values: having a strong sense of your brand’s values, which drives “who you are”
3. Employee Engagement: disengaged employees cannot create engaged customers (Guests); if you want employees to consistently deliver a great customer (Guest) experience, then they need to be valued, supported, and buy into your mission
4. Customer (Guest) Connectedness: in order to deliver on the needs of the customers (Guests), you must first understand those needs, Customer (Guest) Connectedness is about ensuring that all of your decisions are based on a deep understanding of what customers (Guests) are doing, thinking, and feeling. This takes a lot more than just using surveys
Customer Experience is not a veneer, but a reflection of the company’s culture and its operating processes (“Brilliant at the Basics!”)
If a company wants to build sustainable differentiation (from its competitors), then it will need to create a customer (Guest) centric organization.
More on Emotional Intelligence: The Amygdala Hijack
In the coming weeks, Marco’s leaders will begin an extensive study of Conflict Resolution. While this is a serious subject, this clip from Adam Sandler’s The Waterboy, sheds a little humor on the subject. More to follow on this important aspect of leadership and work place effectiveness.
Jack Zenger: Employee Coaching
Emotional Intelligence: How Good Leaders Become Great
Dr Mitchell Adler, PsyD, CGP, presents on Emotional Intelligence at the 2014 UC Davis Executive Leadership Program.
China’s Success With Traditional Direct Instruction and The West’s Failure With Contemporary Methods
A group of teachers went to China and realized that the West is instructing students wrong
Reuters / Stringer
Seventy teachers from the UK were sent to Shanghai to study classroom methods to investigate why Chinese students perform so well. Upon their return, the teachers reported that much of China’s success came from teaching methods the UK has been moving away from for the past 40 years.
The Chinese favour a “chalk and talk” approach, whereas countries such as the UK, US, Australia and New Zealand have been moving away from this direct form of teaching to a more collaborative form of learning where students take greater control.
Given China’s success in international tests such as PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS, it seems we have been misguided in abandoning the traditional, teacher-directed method of learning where the teacher spends more time standing at the front of the class, directing learning and controlling classroom activities.
Reuters / Carlos Barria
Direct instruction vs inquiry learning
Debates about direct instruction versus inquiry learning have been ongoing for many years. Traditionally, classrooms have been organised with children sitting in rows with the teacher at the front of the room, directing learning and ensuring a disciplined classroom environment. This is known as direct instruction.
Beginning in the late 1960s and early ‘70s, teachers began to experiment with more innovative and experimental styles of teaching. These included basing learning on children’s interests, giving them more control over what happened in the classroom and getting rid of memorising times tables and doing mental arithmetic. This approach is known as inquiry or discovery learning.
Based on this recent study of classrooms in the UK and China and a recent UK report titled What makes great teaching?, there is increasing evidence that these new-age education techniques, where teachers facilitate instead of teach and praise students on the basis that all must be winners, in open classrooms where what children learn is based on their immediate interests, lead to under-performance.
The UK report concludes that many of the approaches adopted in Australian education are counterproductive:
Enthusiasm for discovery learning is not supported by research evidence, which broadly favours direct instruction.
Especially during the early primary school years in areas like English and mathematics, teachers need to be explicit about what they teach and make better use of whole-class teaching.
As noted by John Sweller, a cognitive psychologist from the University of New South Wales in the recent Final Report of the Review of the Australian National Curriculum:
Initial instruction when dealing with new information should be explicit and direct.
Many in Australian education believe children are only really learning when they are active. As a result, teachers are told it is wrong to sit children at their desks and ask them to listen to what is being taught.
Again, the evidence proves otherwise. The UK report suggests that even when sitting and listening children are internalising what is being taught. Learning can occur whether they are “active” or “passive”.
Often derided as “drill and kill” or making children “parrot” what is being taught, the UK report and other research suggests that memorisation and rote learning are important classroom strategies, which all teachers should be familiar with.
The UK report states that teachers need to “encourage re-reading and highlighting to memorise key ideas”, while research in how children best learn concludes that some things, such as times tables and reciting rhymes, ballads and poems, must be memorised until they can be recalled automatically.
REUTERS / Stringer
Trying to cater to everyone has no effect
One of the education fads prevalent across Australian classrooms, and classrooms in most of the English-speaking world, involves the concept that all children have different levels of intelligence and their own unique learning styles. (For example, some children learn best by looking at pictures, by being physically active, by hands-on, tactile learning or by simply reading the printed page.)
The UK report concludes such a teaching and learning strategy is misplaced:
The psychological evidence is clear that there are no benefits for learning from trying to present information to learners in their preferred learning style.
Instead of taking the time, energy and resources to customise what is being taught to the supposed individual learning styles of every child in the classroom, it is more effective to employ more explicit teaching strategies and to spend additional time monitoring and intervening where necessary.
Lavish praise does no-one any good
One of the prevailing education orthodoxies for many years is that students must be continually praised and that there is no room for failure. The times when “4 out of 10” or an “E” meant fail are long gone. Supposedly, telling children they are not good enough hurts their self-esteem.
The UK report says that, while praising students might appear affirming and positive,
the wrong kinds of praise can be very harmful to learning.
Overly praising students, especially those who under-perform, is especially counterproductive. It conveys the message that teachers have low expectations and reinforces the belief that near enough is good enough, instead of aiming high and expecting strong results.
There’s not just one way to teach
To argue that some teaching and learning strategies are ineffective does not mean that there is only one correct way to teach. While research suggests some practices are more effective than others, it also needs to be realised that teaching is a complex business. Teachers need various strategies.
In the early years of primary school, children need to memorise things like times tables and poems and ballads so that they can be recalled easily and automatically. Education is also about curiosity and innovation and there will be other times when rote learning will be unsuitable – for example, when students explore a topic that excites them and where they undertake their own research and analysis.
Depending on what is being taught, what has gone before and what is yet to come, whether students are well versed in a particular area of learning or are novices, and even the time of day, teachers must adapt their teaching to the situation and be flexible.
The problem arises when teachers and teacher education academics privilege one particular approach to the detriment of all others.
Read more: https://agenda.weforum.org/2014/11/whats-the-best-teaching-method/?utm_content=buffer7563e&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer#ixzz3YNS7w7xE
Leadership- Engage Your Team- Create a Culture of Engagement
People will forget what you say; they’ll forget what you do — but they’ll never forget how you made them feel.
~ Carl Buechner
This is a nice short video on building engagement within your team by finding the Engagement Sweet Spot.
Emotional Intelligence: From Theory to Everyday Practice
Here is a good video of Yale University Professor Marc A. Brackett, Director, Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence providing a presentation on Emotional Intelligence: From Theory to Everyday Practice.
The Five Levels of Leadership
We recognize organizations with outstanding leadership and learning (or training) programs when we see them, and among the best in this field is Chick-fil-A. In this video, New York Times Best-Selling Author, Dr. John C. Maxwell, speaking at a Chick-fil-A leadercast, explains the Five Levels of Leadership.
Dr Maxwell presents valuable examples and raises a lot of points that could be immediately applied to many of the situations we face on a daily basis. Please share your thoughts on Dr Maxwell’s description of the Five Levels of Leadership, and how understanding them might be helpful to you and your crew(s).
The Marco’s University L&D Team